insulin resistance

Anatomy & histologyDefinition

Subclinical and low-grade laminitis

A subclinical condition has no recognizable or measurable clinical manifestations. Oddly enough the term ‘subclinical laminitis’ is often being used to describe clearly visible, diagnosable signs of laminitis such as a stretched white line, a flaring hoof wall and laminitic…
Living conditionsTreatment and prevention

Prevention of laminitis

Horses at risk Prevention begins with determining whether your horse belongs to a risk group. In that case, all the following information deserves extra attention. Risk groups: ‚ Welsh, Exmoor, Shetland and New Forest ponies, cobs, Appaloosas and Icelandic horses…
Diagnosis

Diagnosis PPID

To diagnose PPID, veterinarians can perform a clinical examination, take blood tests or use MRI scans. Clinical examination Initially a diagnosis will be made by observing the clinical symptoms. In particular, hypertrichosis gives a clear indication, although hypertrichosis occurs at an…
Theories and causes

Incretins and hyperinsulinemia

In the gastro-intestinal tract, specialized cells secrete incretins after the ingestion of food. Two important incretins are GIP and GLP-1: GIP stands for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide GLP-1 stands for glucagon-like peptide-1. These incretins are produced in the small intestine shortly after the…